Transnistria


Transnistria
   / Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
   Once an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) within Ukraine, this small strip of land east of the Dnestr River was combined with territory annexed from Romania in 1940 to create the Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR). During the late 1980s, a nationalist movement among ethnic Moldovans, Romanians in all ways but their Cyrillic script, prompted fears among Slavs and other Russophones living in the heavily industrialized areas that had once been part of Soviet Ukraine.
   In 1990, local politicians proclaimed the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, a move condemned by the leadership in the Moldovan capital of Chişinău. Fierce fighting soon broke out between republican and separatist forces, the latter backed by Russian-speaking volunteer militias and Cossack regiments. The violence only increased in ferocity after Moldova gained independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1991. After the arrival of Aleksandr Lebed in the summer of 1992 and the intervention of the pro-separatist Russian 14th Army, Moldovan President Mircea Snegur and Boris Yeltsin hammered out a cease-fire that stipulated the ultimate withdrawal of Russian troops from Transnistria, which was granted “special status” within Moldova. Domestic concerns over the safety of ethnic Russians in the province, however, prevented the State Duma from ratifying the agreed troop withdrawals.
   While Moscow reaffirmed its commitment to leave Transnistria in 1999 at an Istanbul summit of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the 2002 deadline was never met. Since the conflict was frozen in 1992, Transnistria has developed into a mafia-run statelet under de facto Russian economic control. Like Belarus, the republic continues to maintain Soviet-era controls on prices and guarantees wages. Former union organizer Igor Smirnov has ruled the self-proclaimed republic since 1991. A 2006 referendum in Transnistria saw support for unification with the Russian Federation; however, the poll was not recognized by the international community and Moscow does not officially sanction the state’s declaration of independence from Moldova.
   In 2004, the breakaway republic attracted worldwide attention when authorities closed several schools that were using the Latin alphabet for the Moldovan (Romanian) language; continuing controversy over pedagogy has resulted in a steady Russification of the education system.

Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. . 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • TRANSNISTRIA — TRANSNISTRIA, geographical designation, referring to the area in the Ukraine situated between the Bug and Dniester rivers. The term is derived from the Romanian name for the Dniester (Nistru) and was coined after the occupation of the area by… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Transnistria — o Transdniester (Ruso: Приднестровье (Pridn estrov ye), Rumano Transnistria, refiriendose a Stânga Nistrului (Margen Izquierda del Río Nistru) por fuentes oficiales moldavas, es de facto un estado independiente no reconocido en Europa del Este.… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Transnistria — [trans nēs′trē ə, tranznēs′trē ə; transnis′trē ə, tranznis′trē ə] region in E Moldova: its status as a self proclaimed republic seeking autonomy has been in dispute since 1991 * * * …   Universalium

  • Transnistria — [trans nēs′trē ə, tranznēs′trē ə; transnis′trē ə, tranznis′trē ə] region in E Moldova: its status as a self proclaimed republic seeking autonomy has been in dispute since 1991 …   English World dictionary

  • Transnistria — For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria Governorate. Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ (Republica Moldovenească Nistreană) Приднестрóвская Молдáвская Респýблика (Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya… …   Wikipedia

  • Transnistria — Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ (Moldavo) Republica Moldovenească Nistreană Приднестровская Молдавская Республика (Ruso) Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika Придністровська Молдавська Республіка (Ucraniano) Pridnistrovs ka Moldavs ka… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Transnistria — Territorien unter rumänischen Verwaltung 1941 bis 1944 Verwaltungsgliederung in 13 Bezirke (Karte nicht in N S Richtung) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Transnistria — Запрос «ПМР» перенаправляется сюда. Cм. также другие значения. Координаты: 46°49′00″ с. ш. 29°36′00″ в. д. /  …   Википедия

  • Transnistria — (Transdniestria)    During World War II, the German and Romanian armies conquered the Ukraine as far as the River Bug. Romanian troops were responsible for security up to the River Dnieper, and a new name was invented for the territory between… …   Historical dictionary of the Gypsies

  • Transnistria — noun a) An autonomous territory within Moldova, not internationally recognized as a nation. It is the only part of Moldova in which the Cyrillic alphabet is official, while the Latin alphabet is generally restricted …   Wiktionary